Topic P5_FAQ from CPU FAQ base


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SU.HARDW.PC.CPU (2:5020/299) SU.HARDW.PC.CPU From : Tema Ershov 2:5000/7.33 Mon 16 Sep 96 08:22 Subj : Pentium FAQ [1/5] Hi, All! , pp pp %. WWW p p pp :) - p ( - OverDrive(r) processors). - p , pp - CPU markings :) *** H p p - p pp :) () Intel ;) : ============================================================ PENTIUM(r) PROCESSOR FREQUENTLY ASKED QUESTIONS URL: http://pentium.intel.com/procs/support/faqs/ppfaqx2.htm : 11--96 ____________________________________________________________ Q1: What versions of the Pentium(r) processor are currently available? Q2: I have heard about upcoming faster versions of the Pentium(r) processor. Is this true? Q3: I have heard that 75 and 90 MHz versions of the Pentium processor will soon be discontinued. Is this true? Q4: What is the P55C? Is it shipping yet? Is it the same thing as the Pentium(r) processor? Q5: Is the Pentium(r) processor a 64-bit processor? Q6: What are the relationships between the internal processor core, external processor bus and PCI bus frequencies in a Pentium(r) processor system? Q7: How does the Pentium(r) processor set its internal operating frequency? Q8: I have a 100 MHz Pentium(r) processor. Should I configure it in 2x core/bus(100/50 MHz),or 1.5x (100/66 MHz) mode? Q9: What do the markings on the top and bottom of my processor mean? Q10: What voltage ranges are supported on Pentium(r) processor? Q11: I would like to know what voltage range my Pentium(r) processor requires. How do I determine this? Q12: What is a stepping? Q13: I have bought a Pentium(r) processor system but some of my software identifies it as a 486. Should I return it? Q14: I think my version of the Pentium(r) processor might have the floating-point flaw. What do I do? Q15: How do I get the CPUID program? Q16: I'm going to exchange my Pentium(r)processor containing the FDIV flaw. Can I pay some extra money and upgrade processors during the exchange? Q17: I would like to know the maximum rated frequency of my processor. Will Intel's CPUID (or any other software) program give me this info? Q18: I am developing a program of my own and I would like to include a processor identification routine. Can I obtain the CPUID source code? Q19: I have a 60 or 66 MHz version of the Pentium(r) processor. I'm interested in upgrading this processors; is there an OverDrive(r) processor available for me, or can I upgrade to a 90 or 100 MHz part? Q20: Is there any detailed technical documentation (or the pinout) on the Pentium(r) processor? Q21: I have heard about something called the Specification Update. What is this? Q22: I have a 75 MHz or faster Pentium(r) processor-based system. Will my motherboard support a faster version of the Pentium(r) processor? Q23: What are the differences between Socket 5 and Socket 7? Which future versions of the Pentium(r) processor go into each? Q24: What is the gold square on top of my Pentium processor? Q25: My BIOS tells me that I have an "S" version of the Pentium processor. What does this mean? Q26: I heard about a mobile Pentium processor. What is this? ============================================================ Q1: What versions of the Pentium(r) processor are currently available? The Pentium processor is available in various versions from 60 MHz up to 200 MHz. The 60- and 66-MHz versions are 5 volt product, while 75 Mhz and faster versions operate at approximately 3.3 volts. We also have various Pentium(r) OverDrive(r) processors. Pentium(r) OverDrive(r) processors which upgrade the Intel486(r) processors are available in 63 and 83 MHz versions; Pentium(r)OverDrive(r)processors are also available which upgrade 75 through 100MHz Pentium(r) processors. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q2: I have heard about upcoming faster versions of the Pentium processor. Is this true? On June 10,1996, we introduced the 200 MHz Pentium(r) processor. We haven't yet announced what the highest frequency of the Pentium processor will be. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q3: I have heard that 75 and 90 MHz versions of the Pentium(r) processor will soon be discontinued. Is this true? No. At this time we have no formal plans to eliminate these products. However the market is in the process of adopting faster Pentium processors. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q4: What is the P55C? Is it shipping yet? Is it the same thing as the Pentium processor that is now available? The P55C is an upcoming version of the Pentium processor that incorporates multi-media features in the processor core. These features will be the first significant enhancements to the Intel Architecture instruction set since the Intel386 processor. We're not currently shipping any such product. The 200 MHz version of the Pentium processor that we recently announced is based on the same processor core present in the 75 MHz to 166 MHz Pentium processors. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q5: Is the Pentium processor a 64-bit processor? No it is a 32-bit processor. One of the key features of a processor is the width of its general purpose registers, and on the Pentium processor these registers are 32 bits. One point that sometimes causes confusion is that the Pentium processor, like the Pentium(r)Pro processor, has a 64-bit wide external data bus. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q6: What are the relationships between the internal processor core frequency, external processor bus frequency, and PCI bus frequencies in a Pentium processor system? Here is a list of bus frequencies for current versions, in MHz: Core External PCI 200 66 33 166 66 33 150 60 30 133 66 33 120 60 30 100 66 33 90 60 30 75 50 25 66 66 33 60 60 30 ------------------------------------------------------------ Q7: How does the Pentium(r) processor set its internal operating frequency? The system supplies the external clock frequency which also functions as the external bus frequency that the processor uses to communicate with the system. What the Pentium processor does internally with this frequency depends on which version it is. 60- and 66-Mhz Pentium processors operate internally at the same frequency as the external bus frequency. 3.3V Pentium processors input this frequency and internal circuitry multiplies it. Depending on which version of the Pentium processor, the available multipliers are 1.5x, 2x and 2.5x. These multipliers are selected as the processor is powered on, by the setting of two external hardware pins (BF0 and BF1). ------------------------------------------------------------ Q8: I have a 100 MHz Pentium processor. Should I configure it in 2x core/bus (100/50 MHz) mode or 1.5x (100/66 MHz)? You will get better performance operating this part with a 66 MHz external bus. However it is possible that memory wait state settings may need to be adjusted to account for operation at 66 MHz. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q9: What do the markings on the top and bottom of my processor mean? [covered in P5_MARK.TXT] ------------------------------------------------------------ Q10: What voltage ranges are supported on Pentium(r) processors? There are different voltage ranges required, depending upon which Pentium processor you have. The ranges are: STD: The VCC specification for the C2 and subsequent steppings of the Pentium processor is VCC = 3.135V to 3.6V. The voltage range for B-step parts remains at 3.135V-3.465V. Note that all E0-step production parts are standard voltage. VR: This is a reduced voltage specification that has the range of 3.300V-3.465V VRE/MD: These parts have a reduced and shifted voltage specification. The VRE voltage range for the C2 and subsequent steppings of the Pentium processor is VCC = 3.40-3.60V. The VRE voltage range for B-step parts remains at 3.45-3.60V. MD: Standard voltage specification, but with reduced minimum valid timings. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q11: I would like to know what voltage range my Pentium(r) processor requires. How do I determine this? [covered in P5_STEPS.TXT] ------------------------------------------------------------ Q12: What is a stepping? The first version of a new microprocessor product is the A-0 step; later as we make improvements to the product for functional (bug) fixes or manufacturing improvements we will increase the stepping number. Generally speaking, minor changes result in an increased number, (i.e. A-3 to A-4) while more complex changes result in the letter being changed.(i.e. A-3 to B-0). If you would like to know which stepping of the Pentium(r)processor you have, the CPUID utility program will report this information. Each manufacturing stepping has a unique stepping ID which can be read by the CPUID program. See the answer in question #15 below to determine which version you should use. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q13: I have bought a Pentium processor system but some of my software identifies it as a 486. Should I return it? No it is very likely that there is a Pentium processor in your system. The software is probably mis-identifying your processor. Older software written before the Pentium processor was introduced will do this, and there are several known cases of popular software applications that do mis-identify Pentium processors. If you would like to verify that your processor is indeed a Pentium processor, you should use our CPUID utility program to do this. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q14: I think my version of the Pentium processor might have the floating-point flaw. What do I do? Please visit our Pentium(r) processor web page for more information on the floating-point flaw. If you believe that your processor may contain the flaw and you are interested in getting it replaced, you should verify presence or absence of the flaw. Our CPUID utility will perform this function for you. If, for some reason, you don't have access to CPUID (see below for obtaining it) you can still use the package markings on the top and/or bottom of the processor package to find out if the flaw is present. Write email to support@cs.intel.com and include your package markings, we'll tell you if the flaw is present or not. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q15: How do I get the CPUID program? The utility, CPUID, will identify the type of Intel Microprocessor your PC contains. It will also tell you whether or not your Pentium(r) processor has the floating point divide flaw. There are two versions. The Feb 1996 version of CPUID (CPUID.exe) is in English and has been updated to recognize the Pentium(r)Pro processor. The May 1995 version ($CPUID.exe) supports English, German, Spanish, French, Italian, Dutch and Swedish languages. It does not recognize the Pentium(r)Pro. Installation instructions are included in the Readme.txt or Readme.exe contained within the archive. You should save to a temp directory (C:\Temp) or to a floppy disk. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q16: I am going to be getting my Pentium(r) processor containing the FDIV flaw exchanged. Can I pay some extra money and upgrade processors during the exchange, thereby receiving a faster version in return? No sorry we do not have any policy for doing this. Also this is often not technically feasible for various reasons. For example, a system may be designed only to accommodate the frequency of a specific processor, and trying a faster part can cause significant damage to that system, even if it works temporarily, as well as voiding the system's warranty. In some cases it is not even possible, as 75 MHz and faster versions of the Pentium(r) processor are not pin compatible with 60 and 66 MHz versions. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q17: I would like to know the maximum rated frequency of my processor. Will Intel's CPUID (or any other software) program give me this information? No. CPUID will determine if a processor is a Genuine Intel product as well as the processor family (Pentium Pro processor, Pentium processor or Intel486(r)processor), the model (ie. 3.3 or 5V Pentium processor), and the stepping (version). If the processor being tested is the Pentium processor then CPUID will determine if the well-known FDIV flaw is present. However CPUID cannot determine the maximum allowable frequency for a processor as this information is not stored anywhere inside the product. There are a variety of software programs which determine, with varying accuracy, the frequency that a processor is currently operating at. Note that this is differerent than the maximum Intel rated frequency for the product. We can't vouch for the accuracy of these programs as they come from independent software vendors. However, like CPUID, none of these programs can read the maximum allowable frequency at which Intel rates a processor to operate. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q18: I am developing a program of my own and I would like to include a processor identification routine. Can I obtain the CPUID source code? We do not distribute this electronically. However we do have an Application Note, AP-485, which details use of the CPUID instruction and provides recommended assembly code. The order number for this document is 241618. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q19: I have a 60 or 66 MHz version of the Pentium processor. I'm interested in upgrading this processor; is there an OverDrive(r) processor available for me, or can I upgrade to a 90 or 100 MHz part? We have the 120/133 MHz Pentium(r) OverDrive processor available which is designed to upgrade 60 MHz Pentium(r) processors to 120 MHz and 66MHz Pentium(r) processors to 133 MHz. We recommend checking with the system manufacturer to determine compatibility. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q20: Is there any detailed technical documentation (or the pinout) on the Pentium processor? The official specification of the Pentium(r) processor is contained in the Pentium processor Family Developer's Manual, which is a 3-volume set written for the experienced design engineer. Volume 1 is the hardware reference (241428), volume 2 details a high-end L2 cache solution (241429) and volume 3 is the programmer's reference (241430). Remember that these manuals are written for the experienced design engineer. Document 241997 is the datasheet. This doesn't give complete design-in information but does have partial information such as the pinout, pin descriptions, AC, DC and thermal specifications. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q21: I have heard about something called the Specification Update. What is this? This complements the official processor specifications. Specification Updates contains general information on package markings and steppings, specification changes, errata and documentation changes. Currently Specification Updates are available for both the Pentium processor and Pentium Pro processors. For the Pentium processor, the order number is 242480 while the order number for the Pentium Pro processor Specification Update is 242689. By calling us at (800) 879-4683 you may order either single copies or a subscription to the Specification Update. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q22: I have a 75 MHz or faster Pentium(r) processor-based system. Will my motherboard support a faster version of the Pentium processor? Your board may support a faster standard OEM (Non OverDrive) version of the Pentium(r)processor. However, the answer really depends on your motherboard design. Some motherboards will support faster processors and others will not. Check with your board manual or your system dealer to determine this. We also have OverDrive(r)processors which are designed to upgrade slower Pentium(r) processors. We recommend checking with the system manufacturer to determine compatibility. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q23: What are the differences between Socket 5 and Socket 7? Which future versions of the Pentium(r) processor go into each? Socket 5 is the upgrade socket for 75 MHz through 120 MHz Pentium(r) processor-based systems. Socket 7 is the upgrade socket for 133 MHz Pentium processor-based systems. Socket 7 is a superset of Socket 5 and supports a faster OverDrive(r) processor versus Socket 5. End users should consult their system manufacturer on the support for OverDrive Processor upgrades in their systems. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q24: What is the gold square on top of my Pentium processor? That is the heat spreader, which is present on some versions of both the 5V and 3.3V Pentium processors. It is there to help dissipate heat generated by the processor. Some Pentium processors don't have this, since it was removed beginning with the C-step of the 3.3V product. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q25: My BIOS tells me that I have an "S" version of the Pentium processor. What does this mean? Primarily the "S" means that you have an Award BIOS. The background is that a few years ago we introduced the "S" series of the Intel486(r)processor; this series of processors included advanced "SL" enhanced power management features. These features are also available on versions of the Pentium processor. Award BIOS recognizes the presence of these features and accordingly prints the "S" to your monitor at boot-up time. To date, we haven't heard of any other BIOS vendor which reports this. ------------------------------------------------------------ Q26: I heard about a mobile Pentium(r) processor. What is this? We do have mobile versions of the Pentium processor which are designed specifically for laptop or notebook systems. Currently we offer mobile Pentium(r)processors from 75 to 133 MHz. These products offer the same architecture as the Pentium processor but have several unique features. Although the standard version of the Pentium processor can be designed into a laptop or notebook, there are several advantages to using the mobile version. Lower power means longer battery life. Better thermal specifications allow operation in tightly enclosed laptop cases with no airflow. ============================================================ --- , p 2.50+ * Origin: ͵ Comer's Paradise ͗ (2:5000/7.33)

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